Citation

A citation is a reference to a published item. Citations vary depending on the type of source. The most common citation formats are:

MLA Liberal Arts
APA Social Sciences
Chicago/Turabian Humanities/STEM Sciences

Together with all other citation formats they are sharing this common structure in their build-up:

Minimum Author(s), date of publication, title, page numbers
Default + publisher, + publisher location
Best Practice + unique identifier (ISBN, SICI, DOI)

MLA (Modern Language Association)

Book Author last name, author first name. Book title. Publication city: publishing company, publication year.
Journal Author last name, author first name. “Article title.” Journal title. Volume number. Issue number (publication year): page numbers.
Magazine Author last name, author first name. “Article title.” Magazine title. Publication month and year: page numbers.
Newspaper Author last name, author first name. “Article title.” Newspaper title. Date published: page numbers.
Website Author last name, author first name. “Article title.” Website title. Publisher or website name, date accessed.

APA (American Psychological Association)

Book Author last name, first initial. (Year published). Book title. Publication city: publishing company.
Journal Author last name, first initial. (Year published). Article title. Journal title, volume number, page numbers.
Magazine Author last name, first initial. (Publication date). Article title. Magazine title, volume number, page numbers.
Newspaper Author last name, first initial. (Publication date). Article title. Newspaper title, page numbers.
Website Author last name, first initial. (Publication date). “Article title.” Website title. Retrieved date, from URL

Chicago/Turabian

Book Author last name, first name. Book title. Publication city: publisher, year published.
Journal Author last name, first name. “Article title.” Journal title volume number (year published): page numbers.
Magazine Author last name, first name. “Article Title” Magazine title, publication date.
Newspaper Author last name, first name. “Article title.” Newspaper title, publication date.
Website Author last name, first name. “Page title.” Site title. URL (retrieved date).

Summary: Citations should supply detail to identify the item uniquely.


Referencing

Referencing relates to the method on how to link your citation between the text and the reference list. These are the three commonly accepted methods:

1. Author-date
2. Numeric (Global & continuous count)
3. Footnotes (Count resets every section,article or paragraph)

In the following examples the most relevant part of the individual reference approach is additionally marked bold.

Method: Author-date

Within Text

The positive view on schools to value traditional and competitive sports very high is shared by Pitt and Norton (2012), who recognise it as well as Clooney (2010), to be one popular strategy to address boys' underachievement.

Reference List

Pitt, B. & Norton, E., (2012) Sports and School. Buckingham: Open University Press.
Clooney G., (2010) Masculinity in young adults. Cambridge: University Publishing.


Method: Numeric

Within Text

The approach of schools to value traditional and competitive sports very high, [21] is a popular strategy to address boys' underachievement.[22]

Reference List

[21] Pitt, B. & Norton, E., (2012) Sports and School. Buckingham: Open University Press.
[22] Clooney G., (2010) Masculinity in young adults. Cambridge: University Publishing.

Method: Footnotes

Within Text

The approach of schools to value traditional and competitive sports very high,¹ is a popular strategy to address boys' underachievement.²

Reference List

¹ Pitt, B. & Norton, E., (2012) Sports and School. Buckingham: Open University Press.
² Clooney G., (2010) Masculinity in young adults. Cambridge: University Publishing.

Summary: Which method to use depends on your subject and department. Most universities have information on their website about general referencing conventions.


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